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The location is Temples Street, Xaghra XRA 2161 Gozo, Malta
As you approach Xaghra through 8th September Avenue, take the road to the right past the playing field.
Visiting Hours: Mon to Sun 9.00am to 5.00pm.
Visitors are welcome not later than 30 minutes before closing time.
Closed: 24, 25 & 31 December, 1 January, Good Friday
Telephone no 21553194 Bus no. 64 / 65 (from Victoria Terminus)
Map ref 36.0472° N, 14.2689° E Googlemap link (view on Google Maps)
Ggantija is a Neolithic, megalithic temple complex on the Mediterranean island of Gozo. The Ggantija temples
are the earliest of a series of megalithic temples in Malta. Their makers erected the two Ggantija
temples during the Neolithic Age (c. 3600-2500 BC), which makes these temples more than 5500 years
old and some of the world's oldest manmade religious structures. Together with other similar structures,
these have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Megalithic Temples of Malta.
The temples were possibly the site of a Fertility cult; archeologists believe that the numerous
figurines and statues found on site are connected with that cult. According to local Gozitan folklore,
a giantess built these temples and used them as places of worship.
The Ggantija temples stand at the end of the Xaghra plateau, facing towards the south-east.
This megalithic monument is in fact two temples, built side by side and enclosed within a boundary wall.
The southerly one is the larger and elder, dating back to approximately 3600 BC. It is also better preserved.
The plan of the temple incorporates five large apses, with traces of the plaster that once covered the
irregular wall still clinging between the blocks.
The temples are built in the typical clover-leaf shape, with inner facing blocks marking the shape which was
then filled in with rubble. This led to the construction of a series of semi-circular apses connected with a
central passage. Archaeologists believe that the apses were originally covered by roofing. The structures are
all the more impressive for having been constructed at a time when no metal tools were available to the
natives of the Maltese islands, and when the wheel had not yet been introduced. Small, spherical stones
have been discovered. They are believed to have been used as ball bearings to transport the enormous stone
blocks required for the temples' construction.
The temple, like other megalithic sites in Malta, faces southeast. The southern temple rises to a height of
six metres. At the entrance sits a large stone block with a recess, which led to the hypothesis that this
was a ritual ablution station for purification before entering the complex. The five apses contain various
altars; the finding of animal bones in the site suggests the site was used for animal sacrifice.
Residents and travelers knew about the existence of the temple for a long time. In the late eighteenth century, even before any excavations were carried out, Jean-Pierre HouŽl drew a mostly correct plan based on that knowledge. In 1827, Col. John Otto Bayer, the Lieutenant Governor of Gozo, had the site cleared of debris. Unfortunately the soil and remains were lost without having been properly examined. Luckily the German artist Brochtorff had painted a picture of the site within a year or two prior to removal of the debris, so there was a record of the site before clearance.
After the excavations in 1827, the ruins fell into decay. The land was held privately until 1933, when the
Government expropriated it for public benefit. The Museums Department conducted extensive archaeological work
in 1933, 1936, 1949, 1956-57 and 1958-59. Its goal was to clear, preserve and research the ruins and their
The Ggantija temples were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. In 1992, the Committee decided to
expand the listing to include five other megalithic temples situated across the islands of Malta and Gozo.
The Ggantija listing was renamed as "The Megalithic Temples of Malta"
- Norbert C. Brockman, Encyclopedia of Sacred Places (Oxford University Press, 1998), 89-90.
- J.D. Evans, Malta (1959).
- Marija Gimbutas, The Civilization of the Goddess: The World of Old Europe (1991).
- Merlin Stone, When God Was a Woman (1976).
- Peg Streep, Sanctuaries of the Goddess: The Sacred Landscapes and Objects (1994).
- Geoffrey Aquilina Ross, Blue Guide Malta and Gozo, 5th ed. (2000).
- Karen Tate, Sacred Places of Goddess (2006).