Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), gastric reflux disease,
or acid reflux disease is chronic symptoms or mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the
stomach into the esophagus. A typical symptom is heartburn.
GERD is usually caused by changes in the barrier between the stomach and the esophagus, including
abnormal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, which normally holds the top of the stomach
closed; impaired expulsion of gastric reflux from the esophagus, or a hiatal hernia. These changes
may be permanent or temporary ("transient").
Another kind of acid reflux, which causes respiratory and laryngeal signs and symptoms, is called
laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) or "extraesophageal reflux disease" (EERD). Unlike GERD, LPR is unlikely
to produce heartburn, and is sometimes called silent reflux.
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