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 Amyloidosis

 Amyloidosis FactAmyloidosis is not a single disease, but rather a term given to a group of diseases characterized by the deposition of protein material, called amyloid, into the tissues of the body.


In medicine, amyloidosis refers to a variety of conditions in which amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organs and/or tissues. A protein is described as being amyloid if, due to an alteration in its secondary structure, it takes on a particular aggregated insoluble form similar to the beta-pleated sheet. Symptoms vary widely depending upon the site of amyloid deposition. Amyloidosis may be inherited or acquired.

The modern classification of amyloid disease tends to use an abbreviation of the protein that makes the majority of deposits, prefixed with the letter A. For example amyloidosis caused by transthyretin is termed "ATTR." Deposition patterns vary between patients but are almost always composed of just one amyloidogenic protein. Deposition can be systemic (affecting many different organ systems) or organ-specific. Many amyloidoses are inherited, due to mutations in the precursor protein. Other forms are due to different diseases causing overabundant or abnormal protein production - such as with over production of immunoglobulin light chains in multiple myeloma (termed AL amyloid), or with continuous overproduction of acute phase proteins in chronic inflammation (which can lead to AA amyloid).

Out of the approximately 60 amyloid proteins that have been identified so far, at least 36 have been associated in some way with a human disease.

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